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: Bhopal (state).

This article is about the modern Indian city. For the 18th century Indian state, see Bhopal (state).

Coordinates: 23.16°N 77.36°E
[[States and territories of India|]]
Madhya Pradesh
Coordinates 23.16°N 77.36°E
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Mayor Mr. Sunil Sood

-+91 (0)755

Bhopāl pronunciation (Hindi: भोपाल, Urdu: بھوپال, IPA: [bʰoːpɑːl]) is a city in central India. It is the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal District and Bhopal Division. Historically, Bhopal was also the name of a Muslim princely state in central India (See Bhopal (princely state)).



Bhopal is said to have been founded by the Parmara King Bhoj (10001055), who had his capital at Dhar. The city was originally known as Bhojpal named after Bhoj and the dam ('pal') that he is said to have constructed to form the lakes surrounding Bhopal.

During British Raj, Bhopal was ruled by Nawabs and Begums. See (Bhopal (princely state)).

After independence

Bhopal was one of the last princely states to sign the 'Instrument of Accession' 1947. Though India achieved Independence in August 1947, the ruler of Bhopal acceded to the Indian government only on May 1, 1949. Sindhi refugees from Pakistan were accommodated in Bairagarh, a western suburb of Bhopal.

According to the States Reorganization Act in 1956, Bhopal state was integrated into the state of Madhya Pradesh, and Bhopal was declared as its capital. The population of the city rose rapidly.

Bhopal disaster

Main article: Bhopal disaster

The Bhopal disaster: On December 3, 1984, a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal leaked 40 tons of toxic methyl isocyanate gas, which killed more than 3,000 people outright and injured anywhere from 150,000 to 600,000 others. Another 12,000 deaths have officially been ascribed to the disaster's effects, although campaign groups put the figure much higher. (See Bhopal disaster.)

Law and government

Bhopal is the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. Currently, the mayor of the city is Indian National Congress' Sunil Sood


Bhopal, city roadways & railways
Bhopal, city roadways & railways

Bhopal is a hilly (elevation 498m) but hot area, located on the Malwa plateau, and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south. The summers are hot and the winters cold. It rains moderately during the rainy season.

The municipality covers 286 square kilometres. It has two very beautiful lakes, collectively known as the Bhoj Wetland. These lakes are the Upper Lake (built by King Bhoj) and the Lower Lake. The catchment area of the Upper Lake is 361 km² while that of the Lower Lake is 9.6 km². The Upper Lake drains into the Kolans River.

The major hills in Bhopal comprise of Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region and Arera hills in the central region.

It is well connected to the rest of the country by rail, air and road links.


  • Upper lake (bada talaab)
  • Lower lake (chota talaab)
The lower lake is also known as 'Chhota Talaab'. Chhota in Hindi means Small. Many people confuse that the name Chhota Talaab is because the lake smaller in comparison to the upper lake. But it is not so. The name 'Chhota' in actuall is the name of a man called 'Nawab Chhote Khan' who built this lake in late 16th century.
  • Sahapura lake


The population consists of 56% Hindus and 38% Muslims, with the rest of the population including Christians, Sikhs, Jains, and, Buddhists. However, the demographics of Bhopal district are slightly different with 69% Hindus and 24% Muslims. The Old City of Bhopal is a predominantly Muslim area, but New Bhopal is a demographically cosmopolitan area.

The chief languages are Hindi, Urdu and English, but there are a substantial number of Marathi speakers as well. In the princely state of Bhopal, Persian was the court language until nineteenth century. The slang of Hindi spoken in Bhopal is termed as Bhopali Bakar and is the subject of comedy in Bollywood movies.

  • Population: 1.7 million
  • Total waste generation: 600 ton/day
  • Waste generation per capita: 0.43 kg/person per day

Major parks

Bhopal has many public parks. Some of the major parks are: Kamla Nehru Children's Park (BHEL Park), Chinar Park (famous for its Bougainvillea varieties and animal statues), Ekant Park, Mayur Park, The Rose Garden (Gulab Udyan), Kilol Park, Nandan Kanan etc.


Bhopal is divided into two parts: the Old City and the New Bhopal (these are not the official names). The Old City (often referred to in Bhopal as just "City") is the city built and developed by the Begums of Bhopal. It consists of residential areas like Barah Mahal, Shah Jahanabad, Shimla Hill, Fateh Garh, Koh-e Fiza, Talaya, Ibrahimpura, Lakherapura, Ginori, Chowk, Peer Gate, Noor Mahal, Jahangirabad, Budhwara, Imami Gate, Karbala, and Idgah Hills.

New Bhopal was developed after Bhopal became the capital of Madhya Pradesh. It has modern residential localities like 1250 Quarters, Malviya Nagar, Shivaji Nagar, Tatya Tope Nagar (T.T. Nagar), Arera Colony (which is the second largest colony in Asia, coming only next to Kankarbagh Colony, Bihar[citationneeded]), Shahpura, Ayodhya Nagar, Kasturba Nagar, Gautam Nagar, Subhash Nagar, Saket Nagar, Shakti Nagar, Barkheda, Piplani, Sonagiri and the commercial township called Maharana Pratap Nagar (commonly known as M.P.Nagar).

Major industries and products

The major industries in the city are electrical goods, cotton, chemicals (see Bhopal Disaster) and Jewellery. Old Bhopal(also known as the "CITY")is also known for its very famous zardosi work, which is a kind of embroidery done on bridal dresses, sherwani's, and purses. Another famous handicraft of Bhopal is 'Batua', a small string purse, usually used with Indian traditional dresses.Easily available either in city, or in Government owned Handicraft showrooms(eg.Mrignaynee in TT Nagar, New Market), at reasonable prices.

BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited), the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, has a unit in Bhopal.

Number of other reputed companies like VA TECH HYDRO, Eicher, P&G and HEG have their manufacturing units in industrial area near Bhopal.

Sites of interest

It is one of the largest mosques in Asia, built by Shahjehan Begum around a courtyard with a large tank in the centre and with an imposing double storeyed gate-way with 4 recessed archways and 9 imposing cusped multifoiled openings in the main prayer hall. (The name is Masaajid and not masjid because 'masaajid' is plural of mosques and it literally means Crown Among Mosques) The Quibla wall in the prayer hall is carved with 11 recessed arches, while the mimber is made of black basalt. The structure is enlivened by the limpid expanse of water in the tank outside the northern wall. The monumentality of this structure was much greater originally when it faced the towering bastions of the Fatehgarh Fort. A three-day Ijtima congregation was held here annually draws people from all over the world but has recently been shifted outside the City. Bhopal has over 400 mosques. Interestingly, Taj-ul-Masaajid, perhaps the biggest mosque in India, faces the smallest mosque in the country that lies just on the other side of the road in the same area. The Dhai Seedhi Masjid (2-1/2 stairs mosque) was built in early 18th century when a rampart was converted into mosque.
Dhai Seedi ki Masjid
While Taj-ul-Masaajid boasts of being the largest mosque in Asia (spread areawise), this mosque Dhai-seedi-ki-masjid is known as Asia's smallest. It literally means "a mosque with two and a half steps". This is right across the road from Taj-ul-Masaajid and currently located within the campus of Gandhi Medical College, which is built on top of an old fort, and the mosque is in one of the watchtowers. It is also supposed to be the oldest mosque initially built as a makeshift mosque during the construction of the fort.
Kheoni Sanctuary
Est. 1955 a beautiful wild life sanctuary just 125 k.m from Bhopal and 45 k.m from Astha, Bhopal-Indore road. For tour this sanctuary contact, R.K.Saxena, Supdt. Kheoni Sanctuary, Kannod. Phone- 07273-222542.
Islam Nagar
It has the ruins of the old city built by Dost Mohd. Khan.
Purana Kila
Situated in the Kamala Nehru Park, it is a part of the 300-year old fort of Queen Kamalapati.
Jama Masjid
A mosque built by Qudsia Begum in 1837. Gold spikes crown the minarets of this beautiful mosque.
Moti Masjid
A mosque based on the Jama Masjid of Delhi built by Sikander Begum in 1860.
Shaukat Mahal
A strange mixture of Indo-Islamic and European styles of architecture. It was designed by a Frenchman, said to be a descendant of an offshoot of the Bourbon Kings of France. Post Renaissance and Gothic styles are combined to charming effect here.
Gohar Mahal
It is situated behind Shaukat Mahal on the banks of the Upper Lake was built by Qudsia Begum. It is magnificent expression of the fusion of Hindu and Mughal architecture.
Sadar Manzil
It was built as a hall to be used by the Begums for public audience. Now it is used as the head-office of the Bhopal Municipal Corporation.
Bharat Bhavan
It is the main cultural center of the city and of the most important cultural centers of India. It was designed by the famous architect Charles Correa. It has an art gallery that exhibits works of famous painters and scul

tors. It has an open-air amphitheatre facing the Upper Lake and two other theatres and a tribal museum. The night-view from the amphitheatre set on the backdrop of the old city and the lake is magnificent.

Van Vihar National Park
It is a national park situated beside the Upper Lake. It has a museum too.
Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya
It means The Museum of Man. It is spread over 200 acres (0.8km²) of undulating land on the Shamla Hills on the Upper Lake front. The museum is spread on a hilltop and showcases the various hutments that tribals of across India use for shelter. Each hutment is a showcase of the culture of the region to which it belongs. Utensils, domestic articles, weapons and sometimes clothing specific to that region in displayed in the hutment to give a snapshot of the lifestyle. It's an endeavour to preserve the rural housing architecture with its own specific style and nuance so that it may not get lost as the use of cement and concrete penetrate rural India.
Government Archaeological Museum
Lakshmi Narayan Temple (or Birla Mandir
It is a temple devoted to Lord Vishnu and his consort Laxmi. It is situated to the south of the Lower Lake.
Birla Museum
It has pre-historic rock art and is a World Heritage Site.
Situated at a small distance from the city of Bhopal, Sanchi houses some ancient Buddhist structures built by Emperor Ashoka.
A small village situated some 40 km from Bhopal with a huge rock temple of lord Shiva, (the shivling in the temple is biggest in asia) and having betwa river flowing down the valley. The temple has now come under the management of archeological survey of India.
Mahavir Giri
A famous Jain temple built situated on a scenic hill earlier known as Manua Bhan ki tekri and now known as Mahavir Giri. The temple has idols of Lord Mahavir, Lord Rishabh and Gautam Swami.


  • Hamidia Hospital
  • Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre, Karod
  • Khan Shakir Ali Khan Hospital
  • Jay Prakash Hospital, 1250
  • Kamla Nehru Hospital
  • Sultania Ladies Hospital
  • Hajela Hospital, Kotra
  • Ayushman Hospital, Shahpura
  • Niramaya Hospital, Arera Colony
  • Chirayu Hospital, Fatehgarh
  • Akshay Heart Hospital
  • Harsiddhi Hospital Kolar Road Bhopal
  • Bhopal Charitable Hospital
  • Koh-e-Fiza Hospital, Koh-e-Fiza, Bhopal
  • Kasturba Hospital, Habibganj, Bhopal

Educational institutes




  • All Saints School, Idgah Hills
  • Cambridge Senior Secondary School, Idgah Hills
  • Canyon H.S. School Sindhi Market Peergate
  • Mansarovar Public School
  • H. E. Vikram H. S. School
  • Delhi Public School Bhopal [2]
  • Campion School
  • Carmel Convent Senior Secondary School, B.H.E.L
  • Carmel Convent Senior Secondary School, Co.ed, Ratanpur
  • Jawaharlal Nehru H.S. School, B.H.E.L
  • St. Joseph's co-ed senior secondary school, Arera Colony
  • St. Joseph's convent senior secondary school, Idgah Hills
  • Model Higher Secondary School, T.T. Nagar
  • St. Xavier's Senior Secondary Co-Ed School, Berkhera
  • T.M. Convent Higher Secondary School, Sultania Road
  • Bal Bhavan School
  • ST John's School,Govindpura
  • St Paul's School bhopal
  • St. Thomas convent school,Ayodha Nagar, BHopal
  • Red Rose Group of Schools
  • St. Michaels Senior Secondary School, Ibrahimpura

Eminent personalities associated with Bhopal

  • Shankar Dayal Sharma, former President of India and former Professor at the Harvard Law School.
  • Jaya Bhaduri (Bachchan), famous actress and wife of actor Amitabh Bachchan
  • Javed Akhtar, Bollywood song writer and poet; also part of Salim-Javed scriptwrite of the Sholay fame
  • J Swaminathan, eminent artist; closely associated with the founding of Bharat Bhavan.
  • M.N. Buch: Retired IAS Officer settled in Bhopal. Well known for his forthright views of many issues.
  • Aslam Sher Khan: Member of the World Cup winning Indian Hockey team in 1975 (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Also became a Member of Parliament.
  • Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi (aka Tiger Pataudi), India's youngest captain in Test Cricket. His association with Bhopal is through his mother's family.
  • Shaharyar Khan: Former Pakistani Foreign Secretary. Belongs to the Bhopal Royal family. Is presently the President of Pakistan's Cricket Control Board.
  • Abdul Qadeer Khan: Migrated to Pakistan after his schooling. Father of the Pakistani Atom Bomb. Has bought himself negative attention by selling nuclear secrets to many countries.
  • Raza Murad, Bollywood actor.
  • Miss Iris C. Auer (Member of British Empire) 1904-1998 Dedicated her life for the growth of education in Bhopal.

External links

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from Wikipedia

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from Wikipedia

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